Breadth First Traversal In a Binary Tree Without Recursion
The Problem
Imagine you have a binary tree where as shown above. You may be aware of InOrder traversal where you follow a scheme of visiting left subtree and then visit root node and finally visit right subtree. With small variations in order same is done in preorder as well as postorder traversal. How do you do a breadth first traversal? It is slightly more tricky. Doing it nonrecursively is even more difficult at first sight. Let me first explain what is breadthfirst traversal. You start at root and process it and then you process both children of the root from left to right or right to left. Then you visit all the children of both the nodes you just visited and continue to do till all the levels are finished.
Different traversals produce different output as shown below


10 15 20 25 28 30 32 35 45 50 55 60 62 65 70 75 80 90 95


10 20 15 28 32 30 45 35 25 55 62 70 65 60 80 95 90 75 50


50 25 15 10 20 35 30 28 32 45 75 60 55 65 62 70 90 80 95


50 25 75 15 35 60 90 10 20 30 45 55 65 80 95 28 32 62 70
Trick to solve any binary tree problem without Recursion is to use an auxiliary datastructure like Queue or Stack. For this problem, we shall use Queue as shown below code snippet.
Logic is actually pretty simple, at every level after the root node, add left and right elements to the queue and repeat the process for child levels. As Queue, will give us the elements in FIFO order, when we pop the elements, we will be getting them in the order they are added, which is breadth wise.


What do you think of this solution? Can you think of a simpler solution? Let me know in the comments.